Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 7th International Conference on Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases Osaka, Japan.

Day 1 :

OMICS International Bacteriology Congress 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Shan-Ho Chou photo
Biography:

Shan-Ho Chou is currently a chair professor of the Institute of Biochemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan. He received his bachelor’s degree in chemistry from the National Taiwan Normal University, a master’s degree in biochemistry from the National Taiwan University, and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Washington in Seattle, WA. He has been studying the structural biology of cyclic-di-nucleotide related issues in the plant pathogen X. campestris by NMR and X-ray crystallography and has solved several unique c-di-GMP–protein complex structures.

Abstract:

The discovery of c-di-GMP second messenger is one of the most important breakthroughs in the microbial world in the past two decades. This molecule is present in most bacteria, regulating a plethora variety of important bacterial activities such as biofilm formation, biogenesis and function of flagella and pili, cell differentiation, and biosynthesis of natural product and secretion of pathogenic factors, through binding to an unprecedented array of effectors. There are usually tens or even hundreds of enzymes that make or break c-di-GMP in every bacterial genome. These enzymes usually carry extra domains to activate their activities for responding to environmental changes. Many c-di-GMP biosynthesis (diguanlyate synthetase) or degradation (phosphodiesterase) enzymes have been elucidated. However, only a few c-di-GMP receptors have been characterized to date. To get a better understanding of how c-di-GMP carries out its diverse functions, it is of crucial importance to decipher the possible c-di-GMP binding motifs. 

OMICS International Bacteriology Congress 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Hyon E. Choy photo
Biography:

Hyon Choy is a professor in Microbiology at Chonnam National University Medical School.  Dr. Choy graduated U.C. Davis with Ph.D. in Microbiology.  Currently, he is engaged two major tracks of research: bacterial cancer therapy and host response to Salmonella infection.

 

Abstract:

Iron plays a dual-role in bacterial infection: first, it is a critical micronutrient required for the proliferation of infecting bacteria, and second, it acts as a cofactor in the generation of bactericidal free radicals. Macrophages provide a major source of serum iron by releasing cytoplasmic iron via the membrane bound iron export protein, ferroportin (FPN), degradation of which is triggered by hepcidin produced by hepatocytes upon bacterial infection. Salmonella typhimurium is an intracellular pathogen capable of invading macrophages and proliferating in the membranous Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). In this study, we first demonstrate that FPN is localized on the SCV and plays a role in iron transport into the SCV. To measure iron content in the SCV, a biosensor was constructed by fusing the iron responsive iroB promoter of Salmonella to a mutant GFP with a short half-life (gfpOVA). Using this construct, we estimated the iron levels in macrophages in animals as well as in in vitro cultured macrophages in the presence and absence of hepcidin. In contrast to the generally accepted opinion, the iron level in the SCV in the presence of the iron transporter (FPN) was higher than in its absence (+hepcidin). In general, host defense against pathogens relies on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytic cells, especially during the early stage of infection. Thus, we examined for the generation of bactericidal ROS in the SCV using another biosensor composed of the ROS-responsive katG promoter of Salmonella fused to gfpOVA. To our surprise, ROS generation in the SCV was higher in the presence of FPN than in its absence. The relatively high level of iron in the SCV increased the generation of bactericidal ROS, which in turn decreased the number of intra-macrophage Salmonella and extended infected animal survival. Thus, this study reveals the mechanism via which a block in the hepcidin-FPN circuit controls intra-macrophage Salmonella infection.

 

OMICS International Bacteriology Congress 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Pei Pei Chong  photo
Biography:

Pei Pei Chong is a molecular biologist with expertise in both infectious diseases and cancer biology. She has special interest in host-pathogen interaction particularly in candidiasis, HPV-associated pathologies, as well as drug resistance and strain typing in MRSA. Pei Pei is fascinated by the vast repertoire of the human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and strongly feels that more studies need to be conducted to unravel at the molecular level the strategies by which the virus adapts to different sites of infection and cause various diseases. Through collaboration with clinicians in different specialties, studies carried out by her and co-researchers have contributed to the idea that HPV is associated with ophthalmic pterygium and also breast cancer, along with previous landmark studies by other researchers.

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus causes both hospital-acquired (HA-) and community-acquired (CA-) infections. This bacterial pathogen is associated with multiple infection types including skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), nosocomial pneumonia and sepsis. Varied virulence factors and drug resistance phenotypes are displayed by different sequence types of S. aureus, with the added complexity of colonizers versus strains which cause diverse infections. Therefore there is a need to employ new strategies to study and compare different infection types and varied strains to find efficacious therapeutic and diagnostic markers. We had previously employed proteomic approaches to profile the exoproteome of strains isolated from patients with bacteremia and SSTIs as well as from healthy carriers. Genomics approach was also used to compare the host immune responses from sera collected from these patients. Our findings did not reveal any protein from bacteremia isolates that were immunogenic, but we reported for the first time the antigenicity of MetAPs and Set15 in immunoblot assays of SSTI isolates. A diverse pattern of cytokines and chemokines expression was found in the bacteremia and SSTI patients. However, several chemokines such as MIG and IP-10 were highly expressed in bacteremia versus SSTI patients and healthy carriers. MIG expression was significantly high during the early phase of bacteremia, suggesting its potential use as a diagnostic marker. Recently, another group compared the exoproteome of CA- and HA-MRSA and found some exoproteins that were unique while the abundance of several common proteins varied among the groups. Conclusion & Significance: Further work is warranted to investigate the feasibility of using chemokines such as MIG either as a S. aureus-specific bacteremia diagnostic marker or a generic sepsis marker. Future directions should be focused on development of diagnostic tools that can distinguish between mere carrier and productive infection of S. aureus.